Sequence Resources


Tom Harrington - Forest Pathology and Mycology - an excellent resource for ambrosia beetles of the Americas - a website encompassing the ambrosia symbiosis as a whole, includes a very useful guide to North American Xyleborini


The following references are referred to in the text of other pages on this website, and represent a cross section of the available literature on ambrosia fungi rather than an exhaustive list.

Abrahamson LP, Chu H-M, Norris DM, 1967. Symbiontic interrelationships between microbes and ambrosia beetles. II. The organs of microbial transport and perpetuation in Trypodendron betulae and T. retusum (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Ann Entomol Soc Am 60: 1107–1110.

Abrahamson LP, Norris DM, 1966. Symbiontic interrelationships between microbes and ambrosia beetles. I. The organs of microbial transport and perpetuation of Xyloterinus politus. Ann Entomol Soc Am 59: 877–880.

Abrahamson LP, Norris DM, 1969. Symbiontic interrelationships between microbes and ambrosia beetles IV. Ambrosial fungi associated with Xyloterinus politus. J Invertebr Pathol 14: 381–385.

Arx JA von, Hennebert GL. 1965. Deux champignons ambrosia. Mycopathol. Mycol. Appl. 25:309-315.

Batra LR, 1963. Ecology of ambrosia fungi and their dissemination by beetles. Trans Kansas Acad Sci 66: 213-236.

Batra LR, 1966. Ambrosia fungi: extent of specificity to ambrosia beetles. Science 153: 193–195.

Batra LR, 1967. Ambrosia fungi - a taxonomic revision, and nutritional studies of some species. Mycologia 59: 976-1017.

Beaver RA, Browne FG, 1975. The Scolytidae and Platypodidae (Coleoptera) of Thailand. Oriental Insects, 9: 283–311.

Brader L. 1964. Étude de la relation entre le scolyte des rameaux du caféier, Xyleborus compactus Eichh. (X. morstatti Had.), et sa plante-hôte. Mededelingen Landbouwhogeschool 64(7): 1-109.

Cassar S, Blackwell M, 1996. Convergent origins of ambrosia fungi. Mycologia 88: 596-601.

Francke-Grosmann H, 1956. Hautdrüsen als träger der pilzsymbiose bei ambrosiakäfern. Z Morphol Öekol Tiere 45: 275-308.

Francke-Grosmann H, 1967. Ectosymbiosis in wood-inhabiting insects. In: Henry SM (ed), Symbiosis. Academic Press, New York, pp. 142-206.

Funk A, 1965. The symbiotic fungi of certain ambrosia beetles in British Columbia. Canad J Bot 43: 929-932.

Funk A, 1970. Fungal symbionts of the ambrosia beetle Gnathotrichus sulcatus. Canad J Bot 48: 1445-1448.

Harrington TC, Aghayeva DN, Fraedrich SW, 2010. New combinations in Raffaelea, Ambrosiella, and Hyalorhinocladiella, and four new species from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus. Mycotaxon 111: 337-361.

Harrington TC, Fraedrich SW, 2010. Quantification of propagules of the laurel wilt fungus and other mycangial fungi from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus. Phytopathology 100: 1118-1123.

Harrington TC, McNew D, Mayers C, Fraedrich SW, Reed SE, 2014. Ambrosiella roeperi sp. nov. is the mycangial symbiont of the granulate ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus crassiusculus. Mycologia 106: 835-845.

Harrington TC, Yun HY, Lu SS, Goto H, Aghayeva DN, Fraedrich SW, 2011. Isolations from the redbay ambrosia beetle, Xyleborus glabratus, confirm that the laurel wilt pathogen, Raffaelea lauricola, originated in Asia. Mycologia 103: 1028-1036.

Hartig T, 1844. Ambrosia des Bostrychus dispar. Allg Forst Jagdztg 13: 73-74.

Hartig T, 1872. Der Fichtensplinktkafer Bostrychus (Xyloterus) lineatus. Allg Forst Jagdztg 48: 181-183.

Kaneko T, K Takagi. 1966. Biology of some scolytid ambrosia beetles attacking tea plants. IV. A comparative study of two ambrosia fungi associated with Xyleborus compactus Eichh. and X. germanus. Blanfd. Japanese J. Appl. Entomol. Zool. 10(4): 173-176.

Kinuura H, Hijii N, Kanamitsu K, 1991. Symbiotic fungi associated with the ambrosia beetle, Scolytoplatypus mikado Blandford (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) – succession of the flora and fungal phases in the gallery system and the mycangium in relation to the developmental stages of the beetle. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society 73: 197-205.

Kinuura H, 1995. Symbiotic fungi associated with ambrosia beetles. Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly 29: 57-63.

Leach JG, Hodson AC, Chilton SJ, Christensen CM, 1940. Observations on two ambrosia beetles and their associated fungi. Phytopathology 30: 227–236.

Mathiesen-Käärik A, 1953. Eine Übersicht über die gewöhnlichsten mit Borkenkäfern assoziierten Bläuepilze in Schweden und einige für Schweden neue Bläuepilze. Meddelanden fran Statens Skogsforskningsinstitut 43: 1-74.

Mayers CG, McNew DL, Harrington TC, Roeper RA, Fraedrich SW, Biedermann PH, Castrillo LA, Reed SE, 2015. Three genera in the Ceratocystidaceae are the respective symbionts of three independent lineages of ambrosia beetles with large, complex mycangia. Fungal biology 119:1075-1092.

Nakashima T, 1989. Observation on the ambrosia fungus Ambrosiella sp., growing in the gallery of Scolytoplatypus shogun Blandford (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and on the concurrent damage of wood tissue. Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University 64: 99-105.

Nakashima T, Goto C, Iizuka T, 1987. The primary and auxiliary ambrosia fungi isolated from the ambrosia beetles, Scolytoplatypus shogun Blandford (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) and Crossotarsus niponicus Blandford (Coleoptera: Platypodidae). Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University 63: 185-208.

Nakashima T, Otomo T, Owada Y, Iizuka T, 1992. SEM observations on growing conditions of the fungi in the galleries of several ambrosia beetles: (Coleoptera: Scolytidea and Platypodidae). Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Hokkaido University 65: 239-273.

Norris DM, 1979. The mutualistic fungi of Xyleborini beetles. In: Batra LR (ed), Insect–Fungus Symbiosis: nutrition, mutualism, and commensalism. John Wiley & Sons, New York, pp. 53–63.

Roeper RA, 1972. Biology of symbiotic fungi associated with ambrosia beetles of western United States. Ph.D. Oregon State University.

Roeper RA, 1995. Patterns of mycetophagy in Michigan ambrosia beetles. Mich Acad 26: 153-161.

Roeper RA, 1996. Ambrosia beetles of the continental United States and Canada and status of knowledge of their associated primary symbiotic fungi. Mich Entomol Soc News 41: 12-14.

Roeper RA, French JR, 1981. Ambrosia fungi of the western United States and Canada: beetle associations (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), tree hosts, and distributions. Northwest Sci 55: 305-309.

Roeper RA, Hazen C, Helsel D, Bunce M, 1980. Studies on Michigan ambrosia fungi. Mich Botanist 19: 69-73.Schedl W, 1962. Pronotaldruse bei Scolytoplatypus shogun, mikada, daimio und acuminatus. In: Schedl W, Ein Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Pilzübertragungsweise bei xylomycetophagen Scolytiden (Coleoptera) In: Sitzungsberichten der Österr. Akademie der Wissenschaften. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 376-378.

Schneider IA, Rudinsky JA, 1969. Anatomical and histological changes in internal organs of adult Trypodendron lineatum, Gnathotrichus retusus, and G. sulcatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 62: 995-1003.

Six DL, Stone WD, de Beer ZW, Woolfolk SW, 2009. Ambrosiella beaveri, sp nov., associated with an exotic ambrosia beetle, Xylosandrus mutilatus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae), in Mississippi, USA. Anton Leeuw Int J G 96: 17-29.