3' cap-independent translation enhancers of plant viruses


Publication Type:

Journal Article


Annu Rev Microbiol, Volume 67, p.21-42 (2013)


1545-3251 (Electronic)<br/>0066-4227 (Linking)

Accession Number:



3' Untranslated Regions, Plant Viruses/chemistry/ genetics/metabolism, Protein Biosynthesis, RNA Caps/ genetics/metabolism, RNA, Viral/chemistry/ genetics/metabolism, Viral Proteins/chemistry/genetics/metabolism


In the absence of a 5' cap, plant positive-strand RNA viruses have evolved a number of different elements in their 3' untranslated region (UTR) to attract initiation factors and/or ribosomes to their templates. These 3' cap-independent translational enhancers (3' CITEs) take different forms, such as I-shaped, Y-shaped, T-shaped, or pseudoknotted structures, or radiate multiple helices from a central hub. Common features of most 3' CITEs include the ability to bind a component of the translation initiation factor eIF4F complex and to engage in an RNA-RNA kissing-loop interaction with a hairpin loop located at the 5' end of the RNA. The two T-shaped structures can bind to ribosomes and ribosomal subunits, with one structure also able to engage in a simultaneous long-distance RNA-RNA interaction. Several of these 3' CITEs are interchangeable and there is evidence that natural recombination allows exchange of modular CITE units, which may overcome genetic resistance or extend the virus's host range.


Simon, Anne E<br/>Miller, W Allen<br/>2 R01 GM067104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States<br/>GM 061515-05A2/G120CD/CD/ODCDC CDC HHS/United States<br/>GM 061515-07S1/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States<br/>R01 GM067104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States<br/>Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural<br/>Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.<br/>Review<br/>United States<br/>Annu Rev Microbiol. 2013;67:21-42. doi: 10.1146/annurev-micro-092412-155609. Epub 2013 May 13.