The 3'-terminal structure required for replication of Barley yellow dwarf virus RNA contains an embedded 3' end


Publication Type:

Journal Article


Virology, Volume 292, Number 1, p.114-26 (2002)


0042-6822 (Print)<br/>0042-6822 (Linking)

Accession Number:



Avena sativa/virology, Base Sequence, Gene Expression Regulation, Viral, Luteovirus/chemistry/genetics/ physiology, Molecular Sequence Data, Nucleic Acid Conformation, Protoplasts/virology, RNA, Viral/ biosynthesis/chemistry/ genetics, Virus Replication


We determined the 3prime prime or minute-terminal primary and secondary structures required for replication of Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) RNA in oat protoplasts. Computer predictions, nuclease probing, phylogenetic comparisons, and replication assays of specific mutants and chimeras revealed that the 3prime prime or minute-terminal 109 nucleotides (nt) form a structure with three to four stem-loops followed by a coaxially stacked helix incorporating the last four nt [(A/U)CCC]. Sequences upstream of the 109-nt region also contributed to RNA accumulation. The base-pairing but not the sequences or bulges in the stems were essential for replication, but any changes to the 3prime prime or minute-terminal helix destroyed replication. The two 3prime prime or minute-proximal tetraloops tolerated all changes, but the two 3prime prime or minute-distal tetraloops gave most efficient replication if they fit the GNRA consensus. A mutant lacking the 3prime prime or minute-proximal stem-loop produced elevated levels of less-than-full-length minus strands, and no (+) strand. We propose that a "pocket" structure is the origin of (minus sign)-strand synthesis, which is negatively regulated by the inaccessible conformation of the 3prime prime or minute terminus, thus favoring a high (+)/(minus sign) ratio. This 3prime prime or minute structure and the polymerase homologies suggest that genus Luteovirus is more closely related to the Tombusviridae family than to other Luteoviridae genera.


Koev, Gennadiy<br/>Liu, Sijun<br/>Beckett, Randy<br/>Miller, W Allen<br/>Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.<br/>United States<br/>Virology. 2002 Jan 5;292(1):114-26.