Publication Type:Journal Article
Source:J Virol, Volume 78, Number 6, p.3072-82 (2004)
ISBN:0022-538X (Print)<br/>0022-538X (Linking)
Keywords:Avena sativa/ virology, Base Sequence, Enhancer Elements, Genetic/ genetics, Gene Deletion, Helper Viruses, Luteovirus/genetics/ metabolism, Molecular Sequence Data, Nucleic Acid Conformation, Promoter Regions, Genetic, RNA, Satellite/chemistry/genetics/ metabolism, RNA, Viral/ metabolism, Serotyping, Structure-Activity Relationship, Virus Replication
Satellite RNAs usurp the replication machinery of their helper viruses, even though they bear little or no sequence similarity to the helper virus RNA. In Cereal yellow dwarf polerovirus serotype RPV (CYDV-RPV), the 322-nucleotide satellite RNA (satRPV RNA) accumulates to high levels in the presence of the CYDV-RPV helper virus. Rolling circle replication generates multimeric satRPV RNAs that self-cleave via a double-hammerhead ribozyme structure. Alternative folding inhibits formation of a hammerhead in monomeric satRPV RNA. Here we determine helper virus requirements and the effects of mutations and deletions in satRPV RNA on its replication in oat cells. Using in vivo selection of a satRPV RNA pool randomized at specific bases, we found that disruption of the base pairing necessary to form the non-self-cleaving conformation reduced satRPV RNA accumulation. Unlike other satellite RNAs, both the plus and minus strands proved to be equally infectious. Accordingly, very similar essential replication structures were identified in each strand. A different region is required only for encapsidation. The CYDV-RPV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (open reading frames 1 and 2), when expressed from the nonhelper Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus, was capable of replicating satRPV RNA. Thus, the helper virus's polymerase is the sole determinant of the ability of a virus to replicate a rolling circle satellite RNA. We present a framework for functional domains in satRPV RNA with three types of function: (i) conformational control elements comprising an RNA switch, (ii) self-functional elements (hammerhead ribozymes), and (iii) cis-acting elements that interact with viral proteins.
Song, Sang Ik<br/>Miller, W Allen<br/>Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.<br/>United States<br/>J Virol. 2004 Mar;78(6):3072-82.