Long-distance RNA-RNA interactions in plant virus gene expression and replication


Publication Type:

Journal Article


Annu Rev Phytopathol, Volume 44, p.447-67 (2006)


0066-4286 (Print)<br/>0066-4286 (Linking)

Accession Number:



Gene Expression Regulation, Viral/ physiology, RNA, Viral/ metabolism, Virus Replication/ physiology


The vast majority of plant and animal viruses have RNA genomes. Viral gene expression and replication are controlled by cis-acting elements in the viral genome, which have been viewed conventionally as localized structures. However, recent research has altered this perception and provided compelling evidence for cooperative activity involving distantly positioned RNA elements. This chapter focuses on viral RNA elements that interact across hundreds or thousands of intervening nucleotides to control translation, genomic RNA synthesis, and subgenomic mRNA transcription. We discuss evidence supporting the existence and function of the interactions, and speculate on the regulatory roles that such long-distance interactions play in the virus life cycle. We emphasize viruses in the Tombusviridae and Luteoviridae families in which long-distance interactions are best characterized, but similar phenomena in other viruses are also discussed. Many more examples likely remain undiscovered.


Miller, W Allen<br/>White, K Andrew<br/>GM067104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States<br/>R01 GM067104/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States<br/>Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural<br/>Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't<br/>Review<br/>United States<br/>Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2006;44:447-67.