Primary and secondary structural elements required for synthesis of barley yellow dwarf virus subgenomic RNA1


Publication Type:

Journal Article


J Virol, Volume 73, Number 4, p.2876-85 (1999)


0022-538X (Print)<br/>0022-538X (Linking)

Accession Number:



Base Sequence, Genome, Viral, Hordeum/ virology, Luteovirus/ genetics, Molecular Sequence Data, Nucleic Acid Conformation, RNA, Viral/ chemistry/ genetics


Barley yellow dwarf luteovirus (BYDV) generates three 3'-coterminal subgenomic RNAs (sgRNAs) in infected cells. The promoter of sgRNA1 is a putative hot spot for RNA recombination in luteovirus evolution. The sgRNA1 transcription start site was mapped previously to either nucleotide 2670 or nucleotide 2769 of BYDV genomic RNA (gRNA) in two independent studies. Our data support the former initiation site. The boundaries of the sgRNA1 promoter map between nucleotides 2595 and 2692 on genomic RNA. Computer prediction, phylogenetic comparison, and structural probing revealed two stem-loops (SL1 and SL2) in the sgRNA1 promoter region on the negative strand. Promoter function was analyzed by inoculating protoplasts with a full-length infectious clone of the BYDV genome containing mutations in the sgRNA promoter. Because the promoter is located in an essential coding region of the replicase gene, we duplicated it in a nonessential part of the genome from which a new sgRNA was expressed. Mutational analysis revealed that secondary structure, but not the nucleotide sequence, was important at the base of SL1. Regions with both RNA primary and secondary structural features that contributed to transcription initiation were found at the top of SL1. Primary sequence, but not the secondary structure, was required in SL2, which includes the initiation site. Disruption of base pairing near the sgRNA1 start site increased the level of transcription three- to fourfold. We propose that both primary and secondary structures of the sgRNA1 promoter of BYDV play unique roles in sgRNA1 promoter recognition and transcription initiation.


Koev, G<br/>Mohan, B R<br/>Miller, W A<br/>Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't<br/>Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.<br/>UNITED STATES<br/>J Virol. 1999 Apr;73(4):2876-85.