image of eIF4E binding PTE RNAHow viruses reprogram cells to decode the genetic code.  We investigate the plethora of tricks by which viral messenger RNA usurps and controls the host protein synthesis machinery (translation factors and ribosomes).  We focus on the structures of viral RNA sequences that recruit host translation factors in the absence of the normally required “5’ cap” structure.  We also employ genomics techniques to examine the effect of this virus takeover on translation of plant mRNAs.