In vivo and in vitro infection dynamics of honey bee viruses


Publication Type:

Journal Article


Scientific Reports, Volume 6, p.22265 (2016)


The honey bee (Apis mellifera) is commonly infected by multiple viruses. We developed an experimental
system for the study of such mixed viral infections in newly emerged honey bees and in the cell line
AmE-711, derived from honey bee embryos. When inoculating a mixture of iflavirids [sacbrood bee virus
(SBV), deformed wing virus (DWV)] and dicistrovirids [Israeli acute paralysis virus (IAPV), black queen
cell virus (BQCV)] in both live bee and cell culture assays, IAPV replicated to higher levels than other
viruses despite the fact that SBV was the major component of the inoculum mixture. When a different
virus mix composed mainly of the dicistrovirid Kashmir bee virus (KBV) was tested in cell culture, the
outcome was a rapid increase in KBV but not IAPV. We also sequenced the complete genome of an
isolate of DWV that covertly infects the AmE-711 cell line, and found that this virus does not prevent
IAPV and KBV from accumulating to high levels and causing cytopathic effects. These results indicate
that different mechanisms of virus-host interaction affect virus dynamics, including complex virus-virus
interactions, superinfections, specific virus saturation limits in cells and virus specialization for different
cell types.